LEV A. NAUMOV
St. Petersburg Writers Union
Saint Petersburg, Russia
HOW TO QUOTE DREAMS? OR PRACTICE OF QUOTING AND SELF-QUOTING IN CINEMA AS EXEMPLIFIED IN ANDREI TARKOVSKY’S THE SACRIFICE
Abstract. This article represents an attempt to expand the list of Andrei Tarkovsky’s breakthrough artistic achievements with one more, namely the creation and development of his own apparatus for film quoting. Due to the nature and technology of cinema, recognition of reminiscences in films is much more complex and less indisputable than, for example, in painting, in music and, especially, in literature. And yet Tarkovsky believed one of his tasks to be “placing” cinema as a relatively young art “at the same level” with more traditional and archaic ones. It should be noted that the emergence and active use of quotations is an important sign of the art’s “maturity”, because it indicates the emergence of a canon and hierarchy of authorities.
Tarkovsky himself had a complicated attitude to any kind of authorities, so he often quotes himself in his creative work. This tendency reaches its peak in the director’s final and, in a way, summary masterpiece, The Sacrifice. This article presents and analyzes self-quotes of different kinds, from textual to figurative, from compositional to rhythmical. The article is accompanied with ten illustrative video clips available on the Internet (the links are provided in the text).
Keywords: film studies, history of cinema, Andrei Tarkovsky, Ingmar Bergman, reminiscences, quotes, self-quotes